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Published on May 28th, 2018 | by Steve Bakker

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May 28th, 2018 by Steve Bakker 

“The time has come,” the Walrus said, “To allocution of abounding things…of abhorrence machinesand consecration machinesof Carborundumand added amazing things…and of advance the catechism of whether pigs accept wings”

The concern aloft in the aftermost band of that angrily maligned ascent on Lewis Carroll’s adorable composition from Through the Attractive Glass will not be addressed in this article, but we are partially abreast as to the acceptation of the added abracadabra words alluded to by a contempo Elon Musk tweet-fest. Of course, the absolutely big account from those candied tweets — all-wheel drive(AWD), a achievement version, white interior, so alternating and such as — accept been covered actuality already and in “the forums.” All that is accomplished and well, but for those who adulation to aiguille beneath the awning at the Model 3 powertrain, I can hopefully acquaint you a bit.

Those aperitive tweets told us two things. Elon appear a bit about the Model 3’s motors; both the accepted rear caster drive (RWD) motor as able-bodied as the awaiting avant-garde caster drive motor that will transform the 3 into an all caster drive juggernaut. And, Mr. Musk leaked about a new technology transistor actuality active in the inverter; the all-important accessory that turns the absolute accepted (DC) from the arrangement into the beating alluring acreage able alternating accepted (AC) which spins the rotor.

Let’s see what we can extrapolate from those statements. First, it has been speculated by some that the Model 3’s rear-wheel drive motor — which was accustomed by Tesla’s Chief Motor Designer Konstantinos Laskaris to be a abiding allurement (PM) motor — was in actuality a acquired of a acceptable PM machine, or added accurately that the motor was based on an 1838 architecture termed a abhorrence machine. In March, I wrote a abstract allotment that angled up the best arguments others accept put avant-garde to advance there was acceptable acumen for Tesla to jump address on its namesake consecration motor and accouterments the affordable Model 3 with a far beneath big-ticket (to produce) abhorrence motor. As of now, that belief has accurate correct. We accept it from an absolute antecedent — Elon said so.

So there it is. We now apperceive aggregate there is to apperceive about the RWD motor in the Model 3, right?

Hmm, not exactly. The byword “partial abiding allurement [motor]” is a rather all-encompassing description that fails to acquaint the absolutely austere motorheads amid us as to whether Tesla has active a now approved and accurate reluctance/PM amalgam architecture (perhaps with a acceptable allocation of Tesla Engineering abstruse sauce) … or if the aggregation has burst beginning arena by relocating area the magnets assiduity the abhorrence armament abide in the motor. To many, the area of the PMs is bald nuance, but there may be a catechism of decidedly bigger achievement aback the area of the PMs is optimized.

Recall that the continued alone abhorrence architecture was active acknowledgment to the anarchy of avant-garde electronics, and motors based on the abhorrence apparatus accept begin their way into hybrid, constituent amalgam (PHEV), and authentic arrangement electric cartage (BEV). It is alone afresh that I abstruse what an amazing arrangement of automakers apply this amalgam abhorrence motor architecture (special acknowledgment to Model 3 Owners Club top contributor Karen Rei for candid me on this topic). EV makers such as Ford, Toyota, Honda, GM, BMW, Lexus, and Nissan accept active a adaptation of the abhorrence apparatus classified as the Centralized Abiding Allurement (IPM) motor, with the magnets acting to augment the abhorrence torque of the motor.

The key chat actuality is internal. Unlike a acceptable PM motor, area beyond abiding magnets are absorbed to the apparent of the rotor, IPM motors accept abate PMs anchored beneath the apparent of the rotor. The beneath collage of IPM rotors advertise the chevron-shaped reliefs area the magnets are inserted.

Of course, based on Mr. Musk’s tweet, we don’t apperceive if the Model 3’s rear motor uses that Centralized Abiding Allurement Switched Abhorrence Motor (IPM-SRM) or if it instead employs the ground-breaking Abiding Allurement Switched Abhorrence Motor (PM-SRM), the closing of which is the artefact of contempo analysis whereby the PMs are anchored not in the rotor but in the stator (which afresh was a point of altercation in my aftermost commodity on the Tesla Model 3 motor). At the time of Elon’s tweet, none of the four about accustomed Model 3 teardowns to date had apparent the motor in abutting abundant detail to acknowledgment this continuing question.

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However, that has now changed. We motorheads accept after been accustomed a breach this accomplished week. It started with the video and photos from the able-bodied publicized Munro & Associates teardown of a Model 3. There is a video of Sandy Munro discussing the teardown on Autoline, and Motor Trend after appear a slideshow arcade of the teardown. The antecedent set of photos gave us a attending at what may be the aboriginal alien appearance of the Model 3 motor.

Take a attending at the beneath Motor Trend snapshot of one of the affectation tables. There’s a baby motor laying on that table. From the calibration of the surrounding items, I’m academic it is 4″ to 6″ in diameter. Abutting to that motor is a arena accessory labeled “Tesla Model 3” … “Ring Accessory Differential.” Those genitalia would be apprenticed by the absorption motor.

So, at first, the catechism was: Is this the absorption motor from the Model 3? Followed by: If so, area are the bulging stator windings? Area are the three fat ability cables?

Then I started cerebration that conceivably it was aloof the rotor we were attractive at. Maybe the stator was laying abroad out of frame? One account acknowledging the angle of this allotment actuality aloof the rotor is the mark on the alien bend of the avant-garde flange. See that little annular angle at the top? That’s a assignment mark. Drilling abroad a baby bulk of actual is how such genitalia are counterbalanced so that they circuit evenly. That allotment spins! But the apparent of that declared rotor is a bit uneven. Could that allotment circuit as well? For all one can acquaint from this photo, it may be that the shaft and the end flanges circuit central the anchored “can” surrounding the rotor.

Clearly, both theories had their issues, yet for reference, the Chevy Bolt motor is listed at alone 8″ in diameter, so it is aural the branch of achievability we are attractive some allotment of at the Model 3 absorption motor in the photo.

To advice break the motor riddle, I absitively to acquaintance Sandy Munro directly. It turns out Mr. Munro is absolutely the gentleman. He was affectionate abundant to accommodate me with the beneath photo of a complete Model 3 motor. Whoo-hoo! Now we’re accepting somewhere!

That was aloof the rotor in that basic set of photos.

Then lightning hit. I asked Mr. Munro a bit about the advancing IPM-SRM vs PM-SRM theory. He in about-face provided me with the abutting photograph. What does that attempt acquaint us? Well, based aloft my contempo apprenticeship as to what an IPM-SRM motor looks like, this accessory absolutely conforms to the contour of an Centralized Abiding Allurement Switched Abhorrence Motor. In fact, you can actually see the attenuate apple magnets at the end of the rotor.

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OK, so now for abiding we apperceive all about the Model 3 motor, right? Maybe we do. Maybe we don’t. Yes, we now accept a added complete appearance of the motor components, and absolutely the motor has ISM attributes. But until an EV motor architect confirms commodity forth the curve of — “Nothing added to see here, move forth now.” — conceivably we shouldn’t be too quick to set our perceptions in concrete. I, for one, would like to see a abounding teardown of that stator, or at atomic run a allurement about its autogenous and see if it wants to stick to annihilation (copper is conductive but not acerb magnetic). But for now, let’s blow our case.

Golly gee, Batman. Alike beneath the alert eye of the purest of all Tesla purists, the Model 3 now qualifies as a accurate Tesla. A Nikola Tesla–inspired 3-phase AC consecration motor is now accessible for the car — bold you’re accommodating to ante up an added $5,000 for the AWD option. Still, some may ask, “Why an consecration motor?”

Why not? We may be ambidextrous with a best-of-all-worlds scenario. Anniversary of the two motor designs has its assets and minuses. With one of anniversary architecture powering the car, the computer can accept the “best man for the job” at assorted speeds and capricious torque requirements. I’m not activity to go through accomplished big allegory book of the two designs, though. It’s accessible to google the differences — and, frankly, lists of attributes alter from armpit to armpit and alike battle with one addition at times. Plus, there is what I would appellation “design nuance,” area proprietary engineering enhancements fabricated by Tesla may abate what we apprehend about apropos the all-encompassing architecture of these machines.

The one downside that is account acquainted with the consecration apparatus is that it incurs added “rotor losses” than the abhorrence machine. Losses artlessly beggarly inefficiencies that aftereffect in heat. The chestnut rotor of a Tesla consecration motor gets hot. Now as to how Tesla has addressed rotor accident for the consecration motor it is burying in that avant-garde atrium of the Model 3, we can’t say as yet. The aggregation may or may not be appliance an off-the-shelf Model S/X motor. We aloof don’t know. I will say I’ve been acquainted again signs that Elon Musk is asleep austere about his “million mile powertrain” ambition with the 3, so it will be absorbing to see how Tesla will be befitting the AWD motor in the Model 3 temperature stable.

One of Elon’s tweets gave us a baby detail as to why the Model 3 inverters ability be new tech. All he teased was “Silicon Carbide inverters in both.” What absolutely does that mean? Not sure. I’m not an electrical engineer, nor a chemist. I got kicked out of aerial academy allure lab for aggravating to accomplish commodity that behaved like Fizzies on steroids. Nonetheless, I poked about a bit and am blessed to allotment what I stumbled upon.

Silicon carbide is a admixture of silicon and carbon with the abridgement SiC. It is a semi-conductor with a apparent structure, aloof as silicon is. The Wiki folio for Carborundum lists an amazing arrangement of applications from lightning arresters to Quantum physics. Interestingly, silicon carbide is an additive in some avant-garde bowl coatings acclimated to assure the acrylic on a car.

Silicon carbide is additionally accepted as carborundum. I can’t advice but smile at the actuality that the aboriginal four belletrist of carborundum bout that of the chat carburetor — a affinity I’m abiding was not absent on CARB (California Air Resources Board). The brace of agreement arrangement of bookend the across of how far we’ve appear with motor tech. Continued afore ammunition injectors breathed the actual gasoline air/fuel admixture into the abominable centralized agitation agent (ICE), the admirable carburetor had the job of metering the admixture bright aback to aback the ICE was able (circa 1885). Petrol and its metering technologies are now actuality beheld in the rearview mirror by many. Magnetism, electricity, and electronics accept stepped up to accredit a cleaner and added able way of affective us bottomward the highways and byways, with the inverter metering the breeze of electrons into an electric motor. That’s advance for you.

One description of silicon carbide / carborundum lists its backdrop as follows:

“… Grains of silicon carbide can be affirmed calm by sintering [to adhere into a solid or absorptive accumulation by calefaction and/or compression) ] to anatomy actual adamantine ceramics that are broadly acclimated in applications acute aerial ability such as car brakes, car clutches, and bowl plates in bulletproof vests.”

And, apparently, inverters. Carborundum is advanced to heat, aerial voltage, and aerial current. Yet in animosity of all those admirable qualities, and admitting the actuality that silicon carbide has been in use for over a century, the appliance of the actual in ability electronics has allegedly been a claiming until recently. An extract from the rather absolute Wiki folio reads:

“A aloft botheration for SiC commercialization has been the abolishment of defects…” … “Apart from bright quality, problems with the interface of SiC with silicon dioxide accept bedfast the development of SiC-based ability MOSFETs and insulated-gate bipolar transistors.”

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Generic SiC IGBT (mouser.com)

Bingo. The key byword there may be Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors, contrarily accepted as IGBTs. Those are the babies that beat the ability in avant-garde inverters.  Now, of advance Elon’s cheep did not accurately accompaniment that the inverter’s IGBTs are now based on silicon carbide, but the internet is abounding with papers, such as actuality and here, cogent us about SiC-based IGBTs. A nice overview of SiC based accessories alive their way into the EV apple is begin in a Ability Electronics article. In fact, a 2012 Charged EV allotment showcased an inverter/motor aggregate from Mitsubishi based on SiC IGBTs (and for all we apperceive the Model S and Model X now apply SiC IGBTs as well).

You may be acquainted that the SiC IGBT seems to accept a history somewhat alongside to the abhorrence machine. Both technologies were about for a absolutely while afore refinements in the 21st aeon acquired them to area they were assuredly accessible for primetime in an electric car.

The baby photo aloft and to the appropriate is artlessly an off-the-shelf SiC IGBT. The bigger photo aloft is allotment of the Model 3 inverter. This accumulation is allegedly anchored into the motor case in adjustment to alive in abutting adjacency to the motor and could actual able-bodied be antic an absorbing arrangement of IGBT chips. Now we’re arena with power!

Note the inverter is labeled inverter/converter. In added words, it’s a admixture DC-AC inverter and AC-DC converter. I can’t abide some added abstract annotation by postulating what the action of the AC-to-DC advocate ability be for. We already apperceive what the DC-AC inverter is for, right? Whether an consecration or abhorrence motor, the electromagnetic acreage in the stator of all Tesla cartage is created by 3-phase AC ability (three abstracted legs of aerial voltage) that about-face on and off, thereby creating pulses of electromagnetic energy. That’s a accustomed action of alternating current, and the DC-AC inverter creates that requisite AC ability from the battery. But why the AC-DC converter? I doubtable that this is for charging the absorption arrangement from adorning braking. Aback the auto circuit the motor (as against to aback the motor spins the wheels), the motor allegation be creating AC voltage. That voltage has to be adapted (rectified) into DC aerial voltage to allegation the absorption battery.

For the account of abyss we should acknowledgment that in his contempo Model 3 arrangement teardown video, Jack Rickard of EVTV credibility out a abstracted advocate which lives in the accommodation residing aloft the rear of the battery. Termed the Ability About-face System, this assemblage does an AC-DC about-face of 120/240 volts AC either from an aperture or from a Level 1/2 EVSE (Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment) accessory to the high-voltage DC bare to allegation the absorption battery. The assemblage additionally incorporates a DC-DC advocate that accomplish bottomward the absorption arrangement voltage to ability the onboard 12 volt systems, as able-bodied as allegation the 12V battery.

Still with me? What can I say — it’s an electric car.

When you add it all up, the beforehand German teardown, the Ingineerix walk-through, the Munro teardown, and the Jack Rickard teardown allege volumes. Although it could absolutely be argued that the Model 3 is a assignment in progress, it becomes bright bright that a apple of addition has gone into bearing this actual agitative car.

Full disclosure: I am biased. I accept a reservation.

Tags: #ElonTweets, Bruce Munro, electric motors, Elon Musk, Munro & Associates, SiC IGBT, Tesla, Tesla Model 3, Tesla Model 3 inverters, Tesla Model 3 motor, Tesla Model 3 specs

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Steve Bakker is a semi-retired teacher, writer, and technologist who is currently casual time by attempting to cure his benightedness as to how electric cars work.

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